Introduction to 1999 Compilation*

THIS EXTENDED BIBLIOGRAPHY, of course, reflects the new emphases in the scholarship on slavery that have developed during the early 1990s. For earlier academic trends, users are referred to previous compilations of the materials and to the introduction to the first volume of this set.

The rate of publication of studies sufficiently focused on slavery and the slave trade to meet the standards established for inclusion in this bibliography1 remained approximately constant between 1991 and 1996, at some 700 to 800 titles each year. The academic emphases within this literature followed general scholarly trends away from the social and quantitative style that had defined the modern study of slavery during the 1960s, with its characteristic focus on social aggregates, and also beyond the Marxist extensions of its underlying focus on structures and institutions in much of the scholarship of the 1970s and 1980s. Collectivities and structural abstractions of these sorts were then thought to constitute the only available ways to recover the experiences of the often anonymous victims of slavery, inarticulate in the historical record as individuals.

During the last five years, historians of slavery have increasingly re-invented themselves as historians of the slaves and their varied experiences of enslavement. They have teased the meanings of slavery and freedom to enslaved people from the vast research in previously unused primary sources that had characterized the previous three decades. Novelty has recently come less from discovery of additional evidence than from re-examination of relatively familiar records in search of new insights, as scholarly sensibilities have distinguished the women, children and older people, who in fact made lives of their own under slavery from the stereotypical "young adult males" that the slaveholders idealized as the "prime" slaves they tried to own and exploit, and which earlier views of slavery tended to reproduce.

With this growing visibility of the human beings who actually lived behind the "mask of obedience" has come greater attention to family, play, the ambiguities and ambivalences of the human feelings and interactions behind legalities defined by legislators, but always modified in their implementation by magistrates, masters, and the men and women on whom fell the constraints they aimed to create. Hence, current scholarship extends beyond the burden of living under slavery to consider the implications of living with slavery for the masters, and for bystanders as well. The field in 1996 had become richer in humane sensibility than it was in 1991, realizing more of the potential established by key works pointing in this direction during the 1980s.

This second volume of the bibliography accordingly contains selected references to the considerable number of recent works drawing on literary theory, and often reflecting on the meanings of slavery for all those concerned, as works of literature have represented them. The criterion governing inclusion of such materials in the bibliography -- often very different in style from the behavioralist premises of preceding studies -- has been a distinction that excludes works using representations of slavery to study literary concerns (language, genre, theory) but includes those employing literary techniques to understand human domination and subjugation, often represented in its most extreme forms by slavery. A complementing search for the meanings of slavery has developed through a marked interest in the small corpus of writings by slaves themselves. In the printed version, the results were mostly included in Section II.11, Biographies and Autobiographies; in the database, they cannot be identified as a category but must be assembled through searches on individual names, of the autobiographers, or their biographers.

Some indication of the maturation of the field, and of its incorporation in general teaching, may be inferred from the fact that 5.4% of the publications on slavery between 1992 and 1996 represented anthologized reprints of materials published previously as original monographic research.

The distribution of publications across the geographical regions that structure the bibliography has remained roughly constant, with modestly increased concentration in the broad "General and Comparative" and "North America" sections, as indicated in the following table. The higher percentages in these categories derive in part from a considerable number of reprints in them, very likely prompted by the popularity of this level of the field for increasingly inclusive and diverse college and university instruction in the United States.

Regional Category % 1900-91 % 1992-96
I. General and Comparative 7.9 9.8
II. North America 22.0 30.2
III. Spanish Mainland 3.4 2.7
IV. Brazil 9.0 6.2
V. Caribbean 13.5 16.0
VI. Africa 4.6 5.0
VII. Muslim 3.3 3.0
VIII. Ancient 16.2 10.8
IX. Medieval/Early Modern Europe 3.5 2.4
X. Other 3.1 3.2
XI. Slave Trade 13.0 10.8
   Atlantic - General [9.3 7.5]
   Other, from Africa [1.2 0.8]
   Africa, effects on, internal [1.3 1.8]
   Other [1.1 0.6]

The relative decline in the appearance of new work listed on ancient slavery may reflect several factors. The maturity of ancient history, and particularly Roman law, as fields of historical study covered in Volume I, particularly during the first half of the twentieth century, produced higher percentages in the "Ancient" category for that period than for the remainder of the world, where systematic study of slavery acquired momentum only in the 1950s.2 The study of slavery in modern times, directly driven by contemporary concerns with the politics of race and human rights, has thrived, while the classic debates over slavery in the ancient Mediterranean, stimulated by similar concerns in the nineteenth century,3 have waned with the decline during the 1980s of Cold-War-era debate between Marxists and partisans of other visions of ancient economies and societies.

Known weakness of coverage in this volume of the bibliography lies principally in Brazil, where dozens of university departments of history have recently inaugurated newsletters and journals that frequently include studies of slavery based on local archives. It has not yet proved possible to identify all of these, or to locate accessible copies of those identified.

Coverage of similarly difficult-to-locate publications has expanded in this volume for the Dutch Caribbean, owing to the expertise and generosity of Dr. Wim Hoogbergen, who has contributed his knowledge of that field for every year covered in it.

This volume has utilized electronic databases and other new methods of identifying publications, with the result that some previously unavailable categories of material (e.g., non-U.S. doctoral dissertations, undergraduate theses in the U.S., certain private and ephemeral publications) are listed more fully than has earlier been the case. The bibliography also now extends -- undoubtedly only inconsistently -- into the brave new realm of electronic publication itself: CDs, electronic journals, and specialized websites.

The principal substantive development in understanding slavery during the last five years, beyond individuation and humanization of the slaves, has come in historicizing slavery as a process, through which slaves and masters may be seen to have moved in varying ways, creating and then recreating new cultures of their own, working out tense accommodations among themselves, and jointly setting the terms of cultures of domination and resistance specific to each moment and space, within similarly evolving such structured and abstracted concepts of time and place as "economies" and "societies."

Among the studies originally classed as "general and comparative," this historical emphasis has lessened the yawning gap between abstract concepts of slavery and other forms of human domination opened by structuralist efforts to define clear theoretical distinctions among them. Current work tends to embed the abstractions within the blur of human lives as experienced and thus to treat "slavery" within a broader category of domination, exploring similarities and differences among the many manifestations of this apparently elemental quality of human social and psychological life in varying personal and historical circumstances. "Serfdom" and "slavery," for example, now come up in the setting of a single conference.4 The implications of Orlando Patterson's Freedom continue to anchor explorations of slavery in the context of historically changing meanings of its opposite.5 The proceedings of several of the francophone conferences held in 1989 to commemorate the bicentennial of the French Revolution have also extended this sort of contextualization of slavery into the development of modern notions of liberty and human rights.6

Maturation of the field, and acceptance of enslavement -- or, at least, human domination, aggression, defiance, and survival -- as basic aspects of human existence, have led increasingly to academically responsible representations of slavery in popular forums. Major publishers have no fewer than three general encyclopedias of Slavery in preparation, with publication scheduled as early as 1998.7 Museum exhibitions on the slave trade in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, and elsewhere have followed on the inclusion of the slave experience in the 1992 commemorations of the Columbian quincentennial, with publication of several -- sometimes lavishly -- illustrated exhibition catalogues.8 The UNESCO "Slave Route Project," inaugurated in 1994 with a significant international conference at the former slave-embarkation port of Ouidah (Whydah) in Bénin,9 and its program includes development of Ouidah, Elmina, Gorée Island and other African coastal sites associated with the slave trade for international tourism. The terms on which the experience of enslavement there will be presented are subjects of intense negotiation.10

Though the emergence of world history as a focus of theoretical reflection and reconceptualization of the regional histories within it has not yet led directly to global syntheses on slavery per se, it has accelerated thinking on the "Atlantic economy",11 including the colonial commodity exports, plantations, and slaves that produced them from the time of Columbus until well into the nineteenth century. The principal new historical synthesis on the Atlantic world is that of Robin Blackburn.12

Renewed interest in African American cultures, much of it stimulated by John Thornton's emphasis on Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World,13 has generated productive debate on the extent to which slaves in the Americas drew on their backgrounds in Africa to create new lives for themselves, even under the constraints they endured.14 A number of scholars have adapted the concept of the "African diaspora" to this emphasis on the continuities in cultural creativity among the slaves.15

Wide-ranging scholarship in gender and women's history has provided perhaps the second most innovative current in recent scholarship on slavery, extending to nearly all world regions beyond its beginnings in North America.16

In terms of methodologies, historical archaeology has contributed the greatest quantity of new data on what we know about slaves' lives.17 Legal history has also been prominently elaborated.18

Within the regions, developments in the study of North American slavery have continued to differentiate the formative encounters of English and Africans (and others) in the seventeenth century from the increasingly routinized and conscious, regionally distinct institutions of slavery characteristic of the eighteenth century -- in the Chesapeake, in low-country Carolina and Georgia, in the lower Mississippi Valley -- and each of those in turn from the quasi-industrial plantations of the nineteenth century Cotton Kingdom and the farms of Piedmont Virginia and the Upper South.19 Accordingly, work on slavery in specific places has extended into colonies, counties, and states not previously explored systematically, particularly in New England and the Middle Colonies, Florida, and Louisiana. A noticeable portion of the materials listed for North America are republications or extend work initiated before 1992.20

Current interests in slavery in mainland Spanish America have developed most productively in Mexico21 and Peru,22 the colonies with the principal concentrations of Africans under Spanish rule. Production in Colombia and Venezuela has languished.

In Brazil, where the New World's first, and long its largest, population of enslaved Africans and their freed descendants lived, commemorations of the centennial of abolition in 1988-89,23 growing national debate about the nation's contemporary race relations,24 and growing activism among darker-skinned Brazilians have turned attention there to the tercentennial of the defeat of the maroon colony of Palmares (1694)25 and have extended the prevailing social-economic style of scholarship into new localities and regions. In the United States slavery in Brazil, revealed in all its horrors during the three preceding decades of research, appears to have lost its fascination as an imagined contrast with North Americans' cruelties toward their own slaves, and little has appeared in English beyond convenient syntheses.26

Anglophone Caribbean scholars have built actively on the bases laid during the 1970s and 1980s, though without widespread new departures in approach. The bicentennial of the French Revolution turned scholarship on the French islands strongly toward abolition and the revolutionary eras, 1789-1805 and 1848.27 Scholarship on the Dutch-speaking portions of the area, principally Suriname, showed the greatest increase in activity, advancing from 12.2% of the Caribbean entries through 1991 to 35.2% during the last five years.28 Equally clear is a new interest in slavery in the Danish Virgin Islands.29

For Africa, after two decades of intense exploration of the extent and implications of slavery throughout the continent, beyond the activities of European slave-buyers along the coast, attention to domination has turned toward patriarchy and colonial discourse and other forms of it characteristic of more recent times. As a result, three conference-based collections -- one in German and two in English, one of these on Cameroon and the other on pawnship (a system of temporary dependency closely linked in Africa to slavery) -- account for much of the recent scholarship on the bulk of the continent.30

At the Cape of Good Hope, slavery has attracted more continuing attention, and interest in the history of forced labor has expanded to much of the rest of southern Africa, in part as a side effect of intense current debate over the historiography of a country that between 1992 and 1996 passed through a profound revision of its national identity; the 75 entries in the bibliography for this five-year period multiplied the rate of scholarly publication in this field tenfold from 1.5 titles per year (before 1992) to 15. Studies of slavery at the Cape have long evolved with scholarship on North American slavery, and the discrimination of regional, local, and temporal variation there now parallels distinctions in South Africa among urban slavery in Cape Town, slavery on the wine and wheat farms of the western Cape, and rural slavery to the north and east.

Elsewhere in Africa, a notable addition to the literature in 1996 was the UNESCO "Slave Route"-linked conference on slavery in Madagascar that produced extensive national commentary on that island's history of forced labor.31

Outside of Muslim Africa, scholarship on Islamic slavery showed no more than scattered activity. Revisions and republications of the work of two leading scholars, David Ayalon's well-known studies of Egyptian and other military slaves (mamluks) and Ehud Toledano's studies of Ottoman slavery, account for a significant portion of the listings.32 The somewhat more active scholarship on North Africa included a noticeable emphasis on Christian captives from the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. The most striking novelty within the Muslim world was the appearance of a small number of works -- virtually the first -- on central Asia.

Scholarship on slavery in the ancient Mediterranean has drawn significant impetus in recent years from the Groupe International de Recherches sur l'Esclavage Antique (GIREA) based at the Centre de recherches d'histoire ancienne at the Université de Besançon. Papers presented at its annual conferences, each intending to define a new emphasis in the study of ancient slavery, account for 53 of the 418 entries. Jacques Annequin and others associated with the group have published very useful annual surveys of current work in the field. Much of the recent work slavery in the ancient Mediterranean reflects relatively specialized research, and little of it appears in English. The only recent synthesis in English is that of Keith Bradley.33

Interest in slavery in medieval and Renaissance Europe, on the other hand, has intensified during the last five years, particularly in Spain and its island possessions in the eastern Atlantic. The first systematic work on slavery and other forms of servitude in medieval England appeared also during these years.34 Virtually no new work turned up on Russia and northern Europe.

In Asia, the conventionally narrow focus on South Asian labor as "bonded" and on society and culture as constructed out of "castes" widened significantly to admit scholarship conceived in terms of slavery. This new emphasis extended beyond Muslim India to include ancient times,35 Portuguese India, and British East India Company trading in slave labor in the Indian Ocean during more recent centuries.

Studies on slave trading remained heavily concentrated on the Atlantic "middle passage" and on the effects on the African continent itself of the seventeenth-nineteenth-century era of intensified European commerce along its shores.36 The most noteworthy development during the last five years has been the advance toward completion of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade database of information on Atlantic slaving voyages.37 Its publication will culminate three decades of quantitative research inspired by Philip Curtin's Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (1969) and will provide a fully integrated set of the data generated to support a new generation of quantitative studies of slaving in the Atlantic at previously inaccessible levels of detail, complexity, and comprehensiveness. Initial exploration of this extraordinary compilation of some 25,000 voyages, with data distributed through 170 analytical fields, produced several studies between 1993 and 1996 that extended the conventional style of "volume and direction" to bear on a wide range of new and current issues. A secondary style of scholarship continued to emphasis the relationship between economic developments in the Atlantic and the growth of modern European economies.38

Innovation in studies of the Atlantic trade took the form of renewed interest in the cultural consequences of the delivery of slaves to the Americas, supported by closer examination of the captives' backgrounds in Africa and their experience of the Middle Passage itself, generally questioning the prevailing assumption that the trade so disoriented its victims, and so dispersed the members of African communities, that slaves seldom drew on shared cultures to adjust to life under slavery.39 Interest in the effects of this slaving on Africa has moved productively from the older emphasis on "underdevelopment" relative to Europe to the specific ways in which Africans utilized Atlantic trading, depending on time, region, social position, gender, and other differentiating factors within Africa.40

In terms of new regional emphases on the American side of the Middle Passage, Brazilian historians have begun to investigate more thoroughly the trade that landed the majority of that nation's population prior to the late nineteenth century.41 The noteworthy Danish interest in slavery in that kingdom's West Indian island colonies extended to the slave trade supporting them.42


Credit for the comprehensiveness of this bibliography rests squarely on the shoulders of the skilled graduate students at the University of Virginia who have collaborated with the principal compiler in preparing the annual bibliographical supplements from which all the entries in this bibliography derive. Emlyn Eisenach worked effectively on the supplement for 1992, and Janis M. Gibbs definitively expanded search methodologies and thoroughness of procedure from 1993 to 1995 -- even beyond the high levels set by her now-numerous predecessors.43 John R. Holloran creatively maintained those standards for 1996 and will contribute similarly to the 1997 supplement, in preparation as these words are written. They have all claimed well-earned, full professional credit as co-compilers of the annual supplements.

For several of those years, as noted in the introductions to the resulting publications, the Carter G. Woodson Institute for African-American and African Studies at the University of Virginia provided welcome financial support for the project.

The process of detecting and correcting remaining errors, consolidating five separate listings, eliminating duplicated references, and indexing are my responsibility. Although I of course accept blame for the errors and omissions that inevitably still remain (and the previously undetected duplications noted in the indexes), I will do so most gratefully from colleagues who provide the details and additions that will improve future revisions of these materials.

Frank Cass, Ltd., the publishers of Slavery & Abolition, in which all of the annual bibliographical supplements appeared, have been consistently and generously gracious in allowing me to compile their contents in occasional comprehensive bibliographies, like this one. They certainly share my own interest in providing the added accuracy and accessibility that integrated, ordered listings offer to students and researchers in the field. I am very grateful for their collaboration.

Members of the professional staff in the Department of History at the University of Virginia -- in particular Lottie McCauley and Kathleen Miller -- have once again numbered the entries and generated the alphabetized list of entries from which the author index has been created.

Charlottesville, Virginia
September 1997


* Slightly revised in phrasing and omitting references to the numbered format of the original print version.

  1. Secondary scholarly writings published since 1900 in western European languages on slavery or the slave trade anywhere in the world: monographs, notes and articles in scholarly periodicals, substantial reviews and review essays, conference papers, and chapters in edited volumes and Festschriften focused primarily on slavery or slave trading. Scholarly materials in electronic media, as well as some audio and visual, have been mentioned since 1995. Although a few older titles continue to appear, the bibliography for 1992-96 basically covers only current research.
    The bibliography takes a single author's intellectual product as the unit defining eligibility for inclusion. Hence, it does not usually include chapters on slavery -- even important ones -- in single-authored books conceived in terms of other subjects, e.g. Spanish administrative practice, the history of sugar, urban or agricultural history, race relations, the Roman family, or abolitionism in British politics. Specialists in every field will therefore notice the absence of recognized contributions to knowledge of slavery that appear in the context of the broader scholarship in their areas. Indeed, the significance of such thinking on slavery may derive precisely from its embeddedness in its full historical context.
    It is from such area specialists, and the references they make in the works cited here to such broader, relevant studies, that the full utility of this bibliography ultimately derives. Here the aim is to cover an otherwise boundless literature at a level of introductory comprehensiveness, one that gives readers full access to all relevant literature on slavery within a single additional research step.
    An asterisk (*) indicates a title for which a reference has been encountered but that has not been verified by direct inspection or by consultation of such standard bibliographical sources as the OCLC on-line catalog. Items with asterisks are offered without assurance of accuracy, or even of existence.
  2. It is unlikely that the apparent decrease reflects less complete coverage of this highly specialized field, without recourse to the exhaustive specialist bibliographies available for earlier decades. Dr. Walter Scheidel has contributed the fruits of his own research each year since 1993. If this confidence is ill-founded, the contributions of those able to guide us to the works not listed will be gratefully received.
  3. Moses I. Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology (New York: Viking Press, 1980).
  4. M[ichael] L. Bush, ed. Serfdom and Slavery: Studies in Legal Bondage (London: Longman, 1996).
  5. Orlando Patterson, Freedom in the Making of Western Culture (New York: Basic Books, 1991). Recently, for the United States, aul Finkelman, Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson (Armonk NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1996).
  6. E.g., Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, ed., Esclavage, colonisation, libérations nationales de 1789 à nos jours (Colloque, 24-26 février 1989, Université Paris VIII à Saint-Dénis) (Paris: Harmattan, 1990); Marcel Dorigny, ed., Les abolitions de l'esclavage: de L. F. Sonthonax à V. Schoelcher, 1793, 1794, 1848 (Actes du Colloque International tenu à l'Université de Paris VIII les 3, 4 et 5 février 1994) (Saint-Dénis (France): Presses Universitaires de Vincennes, 1995, and Paris: UNESCO, 1995).
  7. Other large encyclopedia projects (African-American culture and history, Black women, Latin America, the North American colonies, the Civil War, the Confederacy, American social history) include essays relevant to slavery.
    In addition, Randall M. Miller and John David Smith, comps. Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery ("Updated, with a new introduction and bibliography" - Westport CT: Praeger, 1996).
  8. "Les Anneaux de la Mémoire": Nantes, Europe, Afrique, Amériques (Exposition: Nantes, Château des Ducs de Bretagne, 5 déc. 1992 - 4 févr. 1994) (Rochefort: Centre International de la Mer-Corderie Royale, 1992); Hamburgisches Museum für Volkerkunde. Afrika in Amerika: Hamburgisches Museum für Volkerkunde 1992 (ed. Corinna Raddatz, Hamburg: Das Museum, 1992) (Exhibition catalog. "Ein Lesebuch zum Thema Sklaverei und ihren Folgen"); Anthony Tibbles, ed. Transatlantic Slavery: Against Human Dignity (National Museums & Galleries on Merseyside) (London: HMSO, 1994).
    Also see A Slave Ship Speaks: The Wreck of the Henrietta Marie (Key West FL: Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Society, 1995); Theresa A. Singleton, Review of Carter's Grove: The Winthrop Rockefeller Archaeology Museum, Wolstenholme Towne, the Slave Quarter, and the Mansion (long-term exhibition at Colonial Williamsburg), American Anthropologist, 95, 2 (1993), pp. 525-28.
    The bibliography does not include Barry Unsworth's Booker-prize-winning Sacred Hunger (New York: Norton, 1992), a work of historical fiction that has prompted serious discussion among professional historians. It does, however, list Tom Feelings' evocative drawings of The Middle Passage (New York: Dial Press, 1995).
    The production of coffee-table representations of the trade has continued in 1997: Rosemarie Robotham, ed., Spirits of the Passage: The Transatlantic Slave Trade in the Seventeenth Century (New York: Simon and Schuster Editions, 1997). Text by Madeleine Burnside; foreword by Cornel West.
  9. La route de l'esclave - Colloque International. "De la traite négrière au defi du développement: réflexion sur les conditions de la paix mondiale" (Ouidah, Bénin - 1-5 September 1994).
    Subsequently published as Diène, Doudou, ed., La chaîne et le lien: une vision de la traite négrière (Actes du Colloque de Ouidah) (Paris: UNESCO, 1998). Translated as From Chains to Bonds: The Slave Trade Revisited (New York: Berghahn/Paris: UNESCO, 2001).
  10. Edward M. Bruner, "Tourism in Ghana: the Representation of Slavery and the Return of the Black Diaspora," American Anthropologist, 98, 2 (1996), pp. 290-304.
  11. Evident in several indirect ways, including conferences comparing labor systems on all shores of the Atlantic. E. g. Paul E. Lovejoy and Nicholas Rogers, eds., Unfree Labour in the Development of the Atlantic World (London: Frank Cass, 1994) (also as a special issue of Slavery and Abolition, 15, 2 [1994]); Michael Twaddle, ed., The Wages of Slavery: From Chattel Slavery to Wage Labour in Africa, the Caribbean and England (London: Frank Cass, 1993) (also as special issue, Slavery and Abolition, 14, 1 [1993]); in addition to Stephan Palmié, ed., Slave Cultures and the Cultures of Slavery (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1995).
  12. Robin Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Creole (London, New York: Verso, 1996).
  13. John K. Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1680 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
  14. E.g., Wim Hoogbergen, ed., Born out of Resistance: On Caribbean Cultural Creativity (Utrecht: ISOR-Press, 1995); Palmié, ed., Slave Cultures and the Cultures of Slavery.
  15. Alusine Jalloh and Stephen E. Maizlish, eds., The African Diaspora (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1996). Also see forthcoming publication of the proceedings of conferences held in connection with "The Development of the African Diaspora: The Slave Trade of the Nigerian Hinterland" (Coordinated by Paul E. Lovejoy and Robin Law in collaboration with the UNESCO "Slave Route Project").
  16. Among the major collections: see Darlene Clark Hine, "The Making of Black Women in America: an Historical Encyclopedia," in Linda K. Kerber, Alice Kessler-Harris, and Kathryn Kish Sklar, eds., U.S. History as Women's History: New Feminist Essays (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), pp. 335-47; Patricia Morton, ed., Discovering the Women in Slavery: Emancipating Perspectives on the American Past (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996).
    David Barry Gaspar and Darlene Clark Hine, eds., More Than Chattel: Black Women and Slavery in the Americas (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996); Verene S. Shepherd, Bridget Brereton, and Barbara Bailey, eds., Engendering History: Caribbean Women in Historical Perspective (New York: St. Martin's Press, Kingston: Ian Randle, and London: James Currey, 1995); "Femme-esclave: modèles d'interprétation anthropologique, économique et juridique" (Groupe International de Recherches sur l'Esclavage Antique [GIREA], Colloque, 1994, Naples).
  17. Theresa A. Singleton and Mark D. Bograd, The Archaeology of the African Diaspora in the Americas (N.p.: Society for Historical Archaeology, 1995) (Guides to the Archaeological Literature of the Immigrant Experience in North America, no. 2); Charles E. Orser, ed., Images of the Recent Past: Readings in Historical Archaeology (Walnut Creek CA: Alta Mira Press, 1996); and especially Charles E. Orser, Jr., "Toward a Global Historical Archaeology: An Example from Brazil," Historical Archaeology, 28, 1 (1994), pp. 5-22.
  18. Paul Finkelman, ed., Race, Law, and American History 1700-1990: The African-American Experience (11 vols.) (New York: Garland, 1992); "Bondage, Freedom & the Constitution: The New Slavery Scholarship and Its Impact on Law and Legal Historiography," Cardozo Law Review, 17, 6 (1996), special issue; Philip J. Schwarz, Slave Laws in Virginia (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996).
  19. The only new synthesis -- Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619-1877 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1993) -- emphasizes historical distinctions of this sort. See also Ira Berlin, "From Creole to African: Atlantic Creoles and the Origins of African-American Society in Mainland North America," William and Mary Quarterly, 53, 2 (1996), pp. 251-88.
  20. Notably Robert W. Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman, eds., Without Consent or Contract: Technical Papers (2 vols.)
  21. Luz María Martínez Montiel, coord., Presencia africana en México (México: Dirección General de Publicaciones, 1994).
  22. Peter Blanchard, Slavery and Abolition in Early Republican Peru (Wilmington DE.: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1992); Christine Hünefeldt, Paying the Price of Freedom: Family and Labor among Lima's Slaves, 1800-1854 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994); Fernando Romero, Safari africano y compraventa de esclavos para el Perú (Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Universidad Nacional San Cristóbal de Huamanga, 1994); Jean-Pierre Tardieu, L'église et les noirs au Pérou: XVIe et XVIIe siècles (Saint-Dénis and Paris: Université de la Réunion, Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines and Harmattan, 1993).
  23. Maria Verônica de Pas, coord., Anais do Seminário internacional da escravidão (Seminário Internacional da Escravidão, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Espírito Santo, 15-17 de junho de 1988) (Ed. Fundação Ceciliano Abel de Almeida, 1992).
  24. Luiz Claudio Barcelos, Olivia Maria Gomes da Cunha, and Tereza Christina Nascimento Araújo, Escravidão e relações raciais no Brasil: cadastro da produção intelectual (1970-1990) (Rio de Janeiro: Centro de Estudos Afro-Asiáticos, 1991). Also see Ronald Segal, The Black Diaspora (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1995).
  25. João José Reis and Flávio dos Santos Gomes, eds., Liberdade por um fio: história dos quilombos no Brasil (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1996).
  26. Reissue of Robert Conrad's Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in Brazil (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994) and The Destruction of Brazilian Slavery, 1850-1888 (2nd ed. Melbourne FL: Krieger, 1993); Stuart B. Schwartz, Slaves, Peasants, and Rebels: Reconsidering Brazilian Slavery (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992).
  27. In addition to the collections noted in note 10, Michel L. Martin and Alain Yacou, eds., Mourir pour les Antilles: indépendance nègre ou esclavage (1802-1804) (Paris: Editions Caribéennes, 1991)
  28. Some -- though not all -- of the growth in this category of the bibliography is obviously owing to the thorough coverage provided by Wim Hoogbergen.
  29. Arnold R. Highfield, Slavery in the Danish West Indies: A Bibliography (St. Croix: The Virgin Islands Humanities Council, 1994), and other works.
  30. Helmut Bley, Clemens Dillmann, Gesine Krüger, and Hans-Hermann Pogarell, eds., Sklaverei in Afrika: Afrikanische Gesellschaftsformen im Zusammenhang von europäischer und interner Sklaverei und Sklavenhandel (Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus-Verlagsgesellschaft, 1991); Bongfen Chem-Langhëë, ed., "Slavery and Slave-Dealing in Cameroon in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries," Paideuma (special issue), 41 (1995); Toyin Falola and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., Pawnship in Africa: Perspectives on Debt Bondage (Boulder: Westview Press, 1993).
  31. Fanandevozana ou esclavage (Proceedings of Colloque international sur l'esclavage à Madagascar, 24-28 sept. 1996) (Antananarivo: Musée d'Art et d'Archéologie de l'Université d'Antananarivo, coord. Rajaoson François).
  32. David Ayalon, Islam and the Abode of War: Military Slaves and Islamic Adversaries (Aldershot: Variorum, 1994); Ehud R. Toledano, Slavery & Abolition: Studies in Ottoman Social History (Seattle: University of Washington Press, forthcoming).
  33. Slavery and Society at Rome (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
  34. Allen J. Frantzen and Douglas Moffat, eds., The Work of Work: Servitude, Slavery, and Labor in Medieval England (Glasgow: Cruithne Press, 1994), and David Anthony Edgell Pelteret, Slavery in Early Mediaeval England: From the Reign of Alfred until the Twelfth Century (Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester NY: Boydell Press, 1995).
  35. See the very useful bibliography by Jonathan A. Silk, "A Bibliography on Ancient Indian Slavery," Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik, 16-17 (1992), pp. 277-85.
  36. For generalizing reviews, mostly of the publications of the late 1980s, see W[illiam] Gervase Clarence-Smith, "The Dynamics of the African Slave Trade (review essay: Miller, Way of Death; Law, Slave Coast of West Africa; Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World; Savage, ed., Human Commodity; Solow, ed., Slavery and the Rise of the Atlantic System; Inikori and Engerman, eds., Atlantic Slave Trade; Manning, Slavery and African Life; Wright, Strategies of Slaves and Women; and Meillassoux, Anthropology of Slavery)," Africa, 64, 2 (1994), pp. 275-86, and Janet J. Ewald, "Slavery in Africa and the Slave Trades from Africa (review essay: Clarence-Smith, ed., Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade; Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery; Manning, Slavery and African Life; Miers and Roberts, eds., End of Slavery in Africa; Miller, Way of Death; Roberts, Warriors, Merchants, and Slaves; and Sheriff, Slaves, Spices and Ivory in Zanzibar)," American Historical Review, 97, 2 (1992), pp. 465-85.
  37. "The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Database", under the direction of David Eltis, David Richardson, Stephen D. Behrendt, and Herbert S. Klein. The completed project will be released through Cambridge University Press as a CD in the fall of 1997.
  38. Beyond that stimulated by the fiftieth anniversary of Eric Williams' classic statement of the case for a close linkage between "Capitalism and Slavery Fifty Years Later: Eric Williams and the Post Colonial Caribbean" (Colloquium, 24-28 September 1996, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad)..
  39. See recent publications of John K. Thornton; also the UNESCO "Slave Route"-linked project directed by Paul E. Lovejoy and Robin C. C. Law: "The Development of the African Diaspora: The Slave Trade of the Nigerian Hinterland"; "The African Diaspora and the Nigerian Hinterland: Towards a Research Agenda" (Conference, York University, Toronto, 2-3 February 1996); "Source Material for Studying the Slave Trade and the African Diaspora" (Conference, University of Stirling, Scotland, 13-14 April 1996).
  40. E.g., the studies in Robin [C. C.] Law, ed., From Slave Trade to "Legitimate" Commerce: The Commercial Transition in Nineteenth-Century West Africa (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
  41. Notably Manolo Garcia Florentino, Em costas negras: uma história do tráfico Atlântico de escravos entre a África e o Rio de Janeiro (séculos XVIII e XIX) (Rio de Janeiro: Arquivo Nacional, 1995); João Luís Ribeiro Fragoso, Homens de grossa aventura: acumulação e hierarquia na praça mercantil do Rio de Janeiro (1790-1830) (Rio de Janeiro: Arquivo Nacional, 1992); and Roquinaldo Amaral Ferreira, "Dos sertões ao Atlântico: tráfico ilegal de escravos e comércio lícito em Angola, 1830-1860" (Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - Instituto de Filosofia e Ciências Sociais, Programa de Pós-Graduação em História Social, n.d. [1996]). For a synthesis with extensive, expensively reproduced illustrations, prepared in connection with the UNESCO "Slave Route" project, João Medina and Isabel Castro Henriques, A rota dos escravos: Angola e a rede do comércio negreiro (Lisbon: Cegia, 1996).
  42. George F. Tyson and Arnold R. Highfield, eds., The Danish West Indian Slave Trade: Virgin Islands Perspectives (St. Croix VI: Virgin Islands Humanities Council, 1994); Per O. Hernaes, Slaves, Danes and the African Coast Society: The Danish Slave Trade from West Africa and Afro-Danish Relations on the Eighteenth-Century Gold Coast (Trondheim: Department of History - University of Trondheim, 1995).
  43. See the home page of this site for a full listing.