The Differences Slavery Made: A Close Analysis of Two American Communities

In Franklin County, John Breckinridge won a majority in six precincts, most of them in the far northern and western belt of the county, where few blacks lived and farmers planted corn not wheat.

Lincoln won sixteen precincts in Franklin, ten of them by margins greater than 55 percent, with support mainly from the urban center of the county and places with the highest numbers of black residents--even though black men could not vote in Pennsylvania.

In Augusta clusters of contiguous precincts gave their support in the 1860 presidential election in similar patterns.

Whigs accounted for the most visible party activists in Augusta County, but activists in both parties exerted significant influence.

Precincts in Augusta that supported Breckinridge at a high level in 1860 represented the extremes of wealth, as the wealthiest and the poorest precincts drew more support for Breckinridge than any other precincts.

The precincts with high Bell support had average household wealth and farm value well below county averages. For these marginal places a vote for Bell represented a safe course, the least change.

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