See Advertisements


Explanatory Essays

Personal Profiles






Baumgarten, Linda. "'Clothes for the People': Slave Clothing in Early Virginia." Journal of Early Southern Decorative Arts. 14:2 (1988), 26-70.

Bogger, Tommy L. Free Blacks in Norfolk, Virginia, 1790-1860: The Darker Side of Freedom. Charlottesville, VA, 1997.

Breen, T.H. and Stephen Innes. "Myne Owne Ground": Race and Freedom on Virginia's Eastern Shore, 1640-1676. New York, 1980.

Dew, Charles B. Bond of Iron: Master and Slave at Buffalo Forge. New York, 1994.

Egerton, Douglas R. Gabriel's Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 and 1802. Chapel Hill, NC, 1993.

Frey, Sylvia. Water from the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age. Princeton, NJ, 1991.

Gutman, Herbert G. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925. New York, 1976.

Hodges, Graham Russell and Alan Edward Brown, eds. "Pretends to Be Free": Runaway Slave Advertisements from Colonial and Revolutionary New York and New Jersey. New York, 1994.

Jackson, Luther Porter. Free Negro Labor and Property Holding in Virginia. New York, 1942.

Kulikoff, Allan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800. Chapel Hill, NC, 1986.

Minchinton, Waler, Celia King, and Peter Waite. Virginia Slave-Trade Statistics, 1698-1775. Richmond, 1984.

Morgan, Philip. Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry. Chapel Hill, NC, 1998.

__________. "Slave Life in Piedmont Virginia, 1720-1800." in Lois Green Carr, Philip D. Morgan, and Jean B. Russo, eds., Colonial Chesapeake Society. Chapel Hill, NC, 1988, pp. 433-484.

Mullin, Gerald R. Flight and Rebellion: Slave Resistance in Eighteenth Century Virginia. New York, 1972.

Perdue, Charles L., Jr., Thomas E. Barden, and Robert K. Phillips. Weevils in the Wheat: Interviews with Ex-Slaves. Charlottesville, VA, 1976.

Schwarz, Philip J. Slave Laws in Virginia. Athens, GA, 1996.

Smith, Abott Emerson. Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607-1776. Chapel Hill, NC, 1947.

Smith, Billy G. and Richard Wojtowicz, eds. Blacks Who Stole Themselves: Advertisements for Runaways in the Pennsylvania Gazette, 1728-1790. Philadelphia, 1989.

Sobel, Mechal. The World They Made Together: Black and White Values in Eighteenth-Century Virginia. Princeton, N.J., 1987.

Stevenson, Brenda. Life in Black and White: Family and Community in the Slave South. New York, 1996.

Waldstreicher, David. "Reading the Runaways: Self-Fashioning, Print Culture, and Confidence in Slavery in the Eighteenth-Century Mid-Atlantic." William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., LVI (April 1999), 243-272.

Walsh, Lorena S. From Calabar to Carter's Grove: The History of a Virginia Slave Community. Charlottesville, VA, 1997.

Windley, Lathan A. A Profile of Runaway Slaves in Virginia and South Carolina from 1730 through 1787. New York, 1995.

Windley, Lathan A., comp. Runaway Slave Advertisements: A Documentary History from the 1730s to 1790. 4 vols., Westport Conn., 1983.
     Volume 1 features Virginia ads.

Wood, Peter H. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion. New York, 1974


Newspapers surveyed for ads include all extant issues of the various editions of the Williamsburg Virginia Gazette, listed here by publisher:

  • William Parks (Parks), 1736-1750
  • William Hunter (Hunter), 1751-1761
  • Joseph Royle (Royle), 1761-1765
  • Alexander Purdie & Co. (Purdie & Co.), 1765-1766
  • Alexander Purdie & John Dixon (Purdie & Dixon), 1766-75
  • William or Clementina Rind (Rind), 1766-74
  • John Pinkney (Pinkney), 1774-76
  • John Dixon & William Hunter (Dixon & Hunter), 1775-78
  • Alexander Purdie (Purdie), 1775-79
  • John Dixon & Thomas Nicolson (Dixon & Nicolson), 1779-1780
  • John Clarkson & Augustine Davis (Clarkson & Davis), 1779-1780

In addition to the Williamsburg newspapers, other Virginia newspapers from 1774 to 1797 surveyed for advertisements include the following:

  • Norfolk Herald, (Willett and O'Connor), 1794-97.
  • Virginia Argus, Richmond, (Samuel Pleasants), 1795-97.
  • Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser, Richmond, (Augustine Davis), 1790-1797.
  • Virginia Chronicle, Norfolk, (Baxter and Wilson), 1792-95.
  • Virginia Gazette, or Norfolk Intelligencer, (Duncan & Co.), 1775-76
  • Virginia Gazette, or American Advertiser, Richmond, (Hayes), 1782-86
  • Virginia Gazette or Weekly Advertiser, Richmond, (Nicolson & Prentis), 1782-84
  • Virginia Gazette or Weekly Advertiser, Richmond, (Nicolson), 1785-90
  • Virginia Journal and Alexandria Advertiser, (Richards & Co.), 1784-85
  • Virginia Herald and Fredericksburg Advertiser, (Green), 1788-90
  • Virginia Independent Chronicle Richmond, (Augustine Davis), 1786-1790.

There are also advertisements from Maryland newspapers that describe Virginia runaways and captives:

  • Maryland Gazette, Annapolis (1749-1790)
  • Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser (1773-1790)